An oligomeric or polymeric offshoot from a macromolecular chain.
- An oligomeric branch may be termed a
- A polymeric branch may exist termed a
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a
is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called the "main chain" or backbone. The side concatenation is a hydrocarbon branching element of a molecule that is attached to a larger hydrocarbon backbone. It is i gene in determining a molecule'due south properties and reactivity.
A side concatenation is also known as a
pendant concatenation, but a pendant group (side group) has a dissimilar definition.
is oft used as a generic placeholder for alkyl (saturated hydrocarbon) group side bondage in chemical construction diagrams. To bespeak other non-carbon groups in structure diagrams,
are often used.
symbol was introduced by 19th-century French chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, who advocated its adoption on the grounds that it would be widely recognizable and intelligible given its correspondence in multiple European languages to the initial alphabetic character of "root" or "residue": French
("rest"), these terms' corresponding English language translations along with
(itself derived from Latin
("residuum"), and German
("remnant" and, in the context of chemistry, both "residue" and "radical").[iii]
In polymer science, the side chain of an oligomeric or polymeric offshoot extends from the backbone concatenation of a polymer. Side bondage accept noteworthy influence on a polymer'due south properties, mainly its crystallinity and density. An oligomeric co-operative may be termed a short-chain branch, and a polymeric co-operative may exist termed a long-chain co-operative. Side groups are different from side chains; they are neither oligomeric nor polymeric.
In proteins, which are composed of amino acid residues, the side chains are attached to the alpha-carbon atoms of the amide backbone. The side chain connected to the alpha-carbon is specific for each amino acid and is responsible for determining accuse and polarity of the amino acid. The amino acid side bondage are also responsible for many of the interactions that lead to proper protein folding and office.[five]
Amino acids with similar polarity are commonly attracted to each other, while nonpolar and polar side bondage normally repel each other. Nonpolar/polar interactions can however play an important part in stabilizing the secondary construction due to the relatively large amount of them occurring throughout the protein.
Spatial positions of side-chain atoms tin be predicted based on protein courage geometry using computational tools for side-chain reconstruction.
Run into also
- Backbone concatenation
- Branching (polymer chemistry)
- Functional group
- Pendant group
- Courage-dependent rotamer library
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